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Compact Microwave Radiometer Network
Field Deployable
Determined by funding
Please contact Prof. Steven Reising at Steven.Reising@ColoState.edu
Surface Remote
Currently available measurements of humidity in the troposphere grossly undersample its natural variability. Conventional measurements of water vapor density profiles are obtained using in-situ probes on-board weather balloons, including radiosondes, which have excellent vertical resolution but are severely limited in temporal sampling and horizontal coverage. Increasing the spatial and temporal resolution of the observed humidity profiles is essential for improving the initialization of numerical prediction models for weather and climate. In particular, severe storms have been observed to develop in regions of strong and rapidly evolving moisture gradients. Therefore, high spatial resolution moisture measurements with rapid revisit times are needed to improve the prediction of convective storm initiation. To obtain high-resolution measurements of humidity in the troposphere, the Microwave Systems Laboratory at Colorado State University has developed, fabricated, tested and deployed the Compact Microwave Radiometer for Humidity Profiling (CMR-H) [1]. For ground-based deployment, a coordinated sensor network consisting of a number of CMR-H radiometers can produce 3-D images of humidity and temperature in the region. (Temperature measurements require an upgraded version of CMR-H.) In terms of sensor design, CMR-H takes advantage of the latest microwave integrated circuit technology developed for satellite communications to achieve small size (9” x 7” x 6”), light weight (13 lbs.) and low power consumption (25-50 W, depending on the season of the year). These features make the CMR-H convenient for low-cost deployment, not only on the ground, but also on a variety of airborne measurement platforms. The CMR-H has successfully performed field measurements at NCAR’s Mesa Laboratory during the Refractivity Experiment for H2O Research and Collaborative operational Technology Transfer (REFRACTT 2006). CMR-H was mounted atop a pan-tilt positioner and is capable of scanning at the rate of 7º/sec in elevation and 25º/sec in azimuth. Currently, the CMR-H is capable of providing integrated precipitable water vapor (PWV) with a resolution of 0.1 mm as well as water vapor profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution. A network of six CMR-H’s in a nominal hexagonal configuration can retrieve the 3-D structure of water vapor with horizontal resolution on meso-γ scales of 1-3 km, vertical resolution of 0.2-0.5 km and temporal resolution of 12-15 min. Figure 1 shows a water vapor profile derived from measured brightness temperatures using a zenith pointing CMR-H during REFRACTT 2006, compared with in-situ measurements by a weather balloon (Vaisala RS-92).
Steven C. Reising
Colorado State University
1373 Campus Delivery Electrical and Computer Engineering Fort Collins, CO 80523-1373
Facility TypeGround-Based Remote Sensor Network
LocationCurrently in the CO Front Range; Redeployable at Low Cost
VariablesHumidity from ground to 10 km ASL with horizontal resolution on meso-gamma scales of 1-3 km, vertical resolution of 0.2-0.5 km and temporal resolution of 12-15 min.
Archive Data AvailabilityYes
1. Iturbide-Sanchez, F., S. C. Reising and S. Padmanabhan, "A Miniaturized Spectrometer Radiometer Based on MMIC Technology for Tropospheric Water Vapor Profiling," accepted for publication in the MicroRad '06 Special Issue of IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, to appear in July 2007. 2. Iturbide-Sanchez, F., S. C. Reising, and R. W. Jackson, "Fabrication of a Miniaturized Spectrometer Based on MMIC Technology to Retrieve the 3-D Tropospheric Water Vapor Field," IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, pp. 2015-2018, San Francisco, California, Jun. 2006.
Please contact Prof. Steven Reising at Steven.Reising@ColoState.edu
3 Sep 2009 13:47