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Used As Backup
Data Dissemination Facilities ERS data will be disseminated via various facilities at transmission and reception sites within the ground segment using satellite and telecommunication links. The low-rate fast-delivery products (LBRFDP) generated by the ESA ground stations will be centralised at the EECF (on the ISS) and re-distributed to nationally nominated user centres via standard land lines. An alternative of using a satellite link at low rate, e.g. 64 kbits/s, for quick dissemination, at least in Europe, is also being considered. One of the ERS-1 mission objectives is to provide to the user community FD products from ERS-1 within three hours from instrument observation. The nominal solution for the distribution of FD products distribution system, is using public network land lines. However, for the distribution of SAR products the capacity of the landlines is insufficient and satellite links are deemed necessary. The Broadband Data Dissemination Network (BDDN) system is designed to transmit high rate FD products (HBRFDP) from Fucino, Kiruna and possibly Maspalomas ground stations to nominated receiving stations by means of a satellite telecommunication channel. Sources outside the footprint of the satellite will first transfer data to a suitable site within the footprint by appropriate point-to-point connections, e.g. land lines, packet switching networks etc. The Gatineau ground station will receive data through the dedicated line between the EECF and Canada. The EECF is connected with the other ESA Ground Stations and appropriate user centres via low speed land lines or equipment connections. Both Kiruna and Fucino ground stations are equipped with a SAR FD processor and with monitoring and control sub-systems for FD products distribution. In addition the stations will be connected through standard low speed lines with the EECF for schedule and control purposes.
rocessing and archiving As described above there are four PAFs: D-PAF Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany F-PAF Brest, France I-PAF Matera, Italy UK-PAF Farnborough, UK The functions of the PAFs have been harmonised by ESA and each has an agreed area of responsibility for archiving and product generation. They will be responsible for: long-term archiving and retrieval of ERS-1 raw data, auxiliary information and relevant surface data generation and distribution of off-line geophysical and precision products support to long-term sensor performance assessment, calibration and geophysical validation, demonstration campaigns and pilot projects interface with the EECF for updating of the catalogue and supporting user services. The PAFs will share the responsibility for product generation, in order to make efficient use of national expertise and it is intended that their operations continue for 12 years after the launch of ERS-1. A summary of the off-line products to be generated by each of the PAFs is shown in the figure and the services offered by each PAF are listed below it.
Satellite Instruments
On 17 July 1991, the European Remote-Sensing Satellite, ERS-1, the first European satellite to carry a radar altimeter, was launched into an 800 kilometer altitude and 98.5 deg inclination orbit. During the first few months, the Commissioning Phase, all instruments were calibrated and validated. Since then ERS-1 has been flying two Ice Phases (in which the repeat period was 3 days), a Multi-Disciplinary Phase (a 35-day repeat orbit lasting from April 1992 till December 1994), and the Geodetic Phase, which started in April 1994 and has a repeat period of 168-days. The second repeat cycle in this Phase, currently on-going till the launch of ERS-2, was shifted by 8 km with respect to the first so a ``336-day repeat'' is obtained.
Measurment TypeMicrowave-radar-SAR
Platform Typepolar orbiter
OrbitSun synchronous
Spectral Coverage
Scan PatternCross track
Repeat Time35
Wavelength to nm
Number of Bandsn/a
Start DateJul 1991
End DateMar 2000
Temporal Coverage
Swath Width
3 Sep 2009 13:47